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By Jirasek M.

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Abrasion Abrasion Erosion Cavitation Cracking, scaling Rutting, wearing, tearing Surface damage Caves with a relationship to strength parameters are used instead. This leads to a risk of contradictory requirements of design parameters. For this reason, the water-cement ratio of concrete, which is often used as a design parameter of concrete proportioning, is not considered suitable for structural design. Another reason for rejecting it as a parameter of structural design is that cement replacements such as blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume have been increasingly incorporated into concrete mixes, obscuring the whole concept of the water-cement ratio.

9, if it is consistent with the real m. The real m depends on the amount of degradation during the service life and should be checked by calculations after the design. The real m must not be greater than that respective to γt which was applied in the design. 1 respectively. 7. 5 in the relative reduction of load-bearing capacity R, cf. 2). During the time interval 0 → tg the relative decrease of Θ is of course much less. 7. 7 the designer should check whether there is any way to reduce it by changing the dimensions or material specifications or by reducing the rates of degradation.

4 shows the lifetime safety factors calculated with varying β values. 14) where Rd=the design value of the load-bearing capacity, Sd=the design value of the load and Θd=the safety margin calculated with the design values of load-bearing capacity and the load (=Rd−Sd). The design value of the load-bearing capacity is determined by dividing the characteristic strength of concrete by a material safety factor defined for concrete, and the characteristic strength of reinforcing steel by the safety factor for steel, and then using normal design formulae for calculating the capacity.

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Damage and Fracture in quasibrittle materials by Jirasek M.

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