By Clinton R. Sanders
Tattoos as artwork, paintings, ornament and defiance. advent : physique alteration, creative creation, and the social international of tattooing -- changing into and being a tattooed individual -- The tattooist : tattooing as a occupation and an profession -- The tattoo courting : threat and social keep watch over within the studio -- end : tattooing and the social definition of artwork -- Epilogue 2008 : physique amendment then and now / Clinton R. Sanders with D. Angus Vail
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Extra info for Customizing the body : the art and culture of tattooing
1978; Hennessy, 1978). and the outlaw biker's leather jacket (Farren. 1985) and dirt encrusted "colors" (Watson. 1984) clearly symbolize disaffection with mainstream values and identification with those who are overtly discontented with the status quo. Fashion, like all other mechanisms of appearance alteration. is used symbolically to proclaim group membership and to signal voluntary exclusion from disvalued social categories. Non-Permanent Body Alteration One of the most common mechanisms people have used to identify themselves and enhance their beauty is through the use of body paint.
1973; Oettermann, 1985: 12). 16 Introduction Soon the tattoo rage made its way across the Atlantic and began to affect the rich and powerful in America. On December 12, 1897, readers of the New York Herald were asked: Have you had your monogram inscribed on your arm? Is your shoulder blade embellished with your crest? Do you wear your coat-of-arms graven in India ink on the cuticle of your elbow? No? Then, gracious madame and gentle sir, you cannot be au courant with society's very latest fad (quoted in Parry, 1971 [19331: 103).
Recent legal attempts in the United States to define tattooing as an art form protected by Constitutional guarantees of free speech have. as yet. proved to be unsuccessful. For example. in the case of Yurkew v. Sinclair (495 F. Supp. 1248. 1255-56 [D. Minn. 1980)) the court found that the defendant was within his rights to deny rental space in the Minnesota State Fair to a tattoo artist because. while the tattoo product itself may be protected by the First Amendment. [the) process of tattooing is not sufficiently communicative so as to implicate the First Amendment as regards government regulation and licensing because not only is the tattoo itself more communicative than the process but unsuccessful applicant for tattoo booth at state fair failed to show content of images he created through the process and there was no suggestion that political or social thought was conveyed or that the observer or recipient would regard the process as communicative and.
Customizing the body : the art and culture of tattooing by Clinton R. Sanders