Benjamin Kissin's Conscious and Unconscious Programs in the Brain PDF

By Benjamin Kissin

ISBN-10: 1461292875

ISBN-13: 9781461292876

ISBN-10: 1461321875

ISBN-13: 9781461321873

For nearly a century now, seeing that Freud defined the fundamental motivations and Pavlov the fundamental mechanisms of human habit, we've had an affordable notion of the forces that force us. just recently have we won any genuine perception into how the mind rather works to supply such habit. the hot advancements in cognitive psychology and neuroscience have taught us issues in regards to the functionality of the mind that may were not possible even ten years in the past. but, there nonetheless is still a massive hole among the 2 studies-human habit and mind function-a hole which regularly turns out irrec­ oncilable in view of the elemental modifications within the methodologies and techniques of the 2 fields. scholars of habit are often disinterested within the underlying neu­ rophysiology whereas neurophysiologists are likely to contemplate the ideas of psychiatrists and scientific psychologists too imprecise and theoretical to be acceptable to their very own extra constrained schemata. a number of valiant makes an attempt were made via experimentalists to increase a theoretical context within which habit is defined, no longer individually from mind functionality yet fairly as its direct outgrowth. This current paintings remains to be one other try to boost a theoretical procedure which, given the restrictions of our current wisdom, as thoroughly as attainable, the underlying mind mechanisms that influ­ will describe ence and confirm human habit. the most emphasis of this paintings, in spite of the fact that, should be no longer on basic habit yet really on extra neurotic manifestations.

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Development and experience not only affect the cognitive elaboration of given drives but even more importantly determine the specific patterns of responsivity associated with those drives. Where in the brain this occurs is not entirely clear but presumably these changes occur in the specific cortical areas (the inferotemporal lobe) where 28 Chapter 2 cognitive and emotional stimuli are integrated. * As a result of such interactions, behavioral responses to even biological drives may be significantly changed.

In each case a kind of physiological or chemical rheostat in the hypothalamus responds to physiological (stomach contractions or dry mouth) or chemical changes (low blood sugar or high blood concentration) to produce sensations of hunger or thirst, respectively. The mechanisms for temperature control are similar, with exposures to either excessive heat or cold triggering corresponding feelings associated with appropriate behavioral responses. The sensations of hunger, thirst, heat, and cold are basically cognitive experiences that are transmitted through mechanisms similar to those involved in perception and cognition (see Chapter 4).

The overall effect is that of a large network of interacting nerve fibers which sometimes appears to function as a single pulsating entity. But that view would be erroneous. Even this diffuse structural arrangement postulates specific nerve centers and nervous systems for specific functions. Within this context the ancient argument for localization versus generalization of function in the brain has little meaning. The following statement by Gregory (1975) best expresses both the nature of the separation of function· between the microscopic and macroscopic levels and simultaneously the nature of the interaction: The brain is not a homogeneous mass.

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Conscious and Unconscious Programs in the Brain by Benjamin Kissin

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