By Nikolai M Dronin, Edward G Bellinger
Among 1900 and 1990, there have been a number of sessions of grain and different meals shortages in Russia and the previous Soviet Union, a few of which reached catastrophe proportions leading to mass famine and dying on an exceptional scale. New shares of data now not formerly available in addition to conventional reliable and different resources were used to discover the level to which coverage and vagaries in weather conspired to impact agricultural yields. have been the leaders' (Stalin, Krushchev, Brezhnev and Gorbachev) guidelines sound in conception yet failed in perform as a result of unpredictable climate? How did the Soviet peasants react to those alterations? What influence did Soviet agriculture have at the total economic climate of the rustic? those are all questions which are taken into consideration.
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Additional resources for Climate Dependence and Food Problems in Russia, 1900-1990: The Interaction of Climate and Agricultural Policy and Their Effect on Food Problems
In addition, no data are available about changes in the average weight of farm animals in this period. Meadows and pastures, which were used almost entirely by livestock for fodder, also receive little attention in the statistics in spite of their importance for livestock production. No information about meat and milk production was published in the Russian Empire, nor was any statistical research carried out in order to determine the food consumption of Russian peasants. The statistics on crop areas and harvests published in the Russian Empire are not always considered sufficiently reliable, and these data were severely criticized at least twice in pre- and post-revolutionary times.
Ryazanskaya obl. Samarskaya obl. Saratovskaya obl. Simbirskaya obl. Stavropolskaya obl. Tambovskaya obl. Tatarstan Tverskaya obl. 1919 1920 3,505 3,341 2,741 3,095 3,249 4,069 3,217 3,436 3,549 3,564 3,089 3,157 4,797 3,299 4,195 2,949 4,479 4,474 3,946 4,217 2,977 3,223 3,790 3,333 3,565 2,486 3,263 3,626 3,273 4,327 2,738 3,260 3,484 1921 2,074 3,472 2,061 2,519 2,996 1,825 3,420 4,027 2,496 3,173 3,364 3,041 3,544 2,389 1,130 2,615 2,029 3,444 2,379 2,081 3,518 1922 1,792 3,208 1,834 2,523 2,729 1,497 3,641 3,729 3,526 3,605 3,021 3,724 3,837 2,352 1,420 1,762 1,801 2,256 2,219 1,722 3,619 1923 3,824 3,634 3,723 3,147 3,511 4,015 3,790 3,781 4,004 3,677 4,401 3,645 3,604 3,959 3,597 3,892 3,696 3,734 3,829 3,153 3,555 1924 4,404 3,993 4,542 3,859 3,841 4,413 4,026 4,567 3,995 4,120 4,537 3,878 4,076 3,779 4,323 4,048 4,820 4,076 3,903 4,059 2,074 Regions affected by mass famine according to KGB reports 3,824 Average food consumption in region, kcal per capita per day (field observation) Source: Berelovich and Danilov, 2000a, b; Sbornik statisticheskix svedenii po Souzy SSR: 1918–1923, 1924.
The accuracy and reliability of statistical data published in the Soviet Union remains a key problem. It would be wrong to suggest that the Soviet authorities regularly sanctioned the publication of false statistics in order to mislead their political opponents. If the Soviet authorities did not wish to make public the statistics for a given year, they simply did not publish them (although in such cases the missing data might even appear in official reports a few years later). The problem of the accuracy of Soviet statistics is partly associated with the specific definition of some of the statistical parameters.
Climate Dependence and Food Problems in Russia, 1900-1990: The Interaction of Climate and Agricultural Policy and Their Effect on Food Problems by Nikolai M Dronin, Edward G Bellinger