By Danian Hu
China and Albert Einstein is the 1st vast learn in English or chinese language of China’s reception of the distinguished physicist and his conception of relativity. Tracing the impression of Jesuit missionaries within the 17th century and Western missionaries and educators within the 19th and 20th centuries, as they brought key suggestions of Western actual technology and prepared the ground for Einstein’s radical new principles, Danian Hu indicates us that chinese language receptivity was once fostered through the trickle of chinese language scholars despatched out of the country for learn starting within the mid-nineteenth century and through the openness of the might Fourth circulate (1916–1923).
In a sequence of biographical reviews of chinese language physicists, Hu describes the chinese language assimilation of relativity and explains how chinese language physicists provided arguments and theories in their personal. Hu’s account concludes with the troubling tale of the destiny of international rules equivalent to Einstein’s within the chinese language Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), while the idea of relativity was once denigrated besides Einstein’s principles on democracy and global peace.
China and Albert Einstein is a vital contribution to Einstein stories and a landmark paintings within the historical past of chinese language science.
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Extra resources for China and Albert Einstein: The Reception of the Physicist and His Theory in China, 1917-1979
This substance is called the Luminiferous ether. It ﬁlls space; it surrounds the atoms of bodies; it extends, without solution of continuity, through the humors of the eye. The molecules of luminous bodies are in a state of vibration. The vibrations are taken up by the ether, and transmitted through it in waves. These waves impinging on the retina excite the sensation of light. In the case of sound, the air-particles oscillate to and fro in the direction in which the sound is transmitted; in the case of light, the ether particles oscillated to and fro across the direction in which the light is propagated.
71 Therefore, just as his Supplementary Elements of Geometry followed Ricci’s translation, Wylie’s idea of using Western scientiﬁc works to help spread the gospel was also in line with Ricci’s approach of academic preaching. By 1859, Joseph Edkins (1823–1905), Alexander Williamson (1829– 1890), Wang Tao (1828–1897), and Zhang Fuxi (d. 1862) had also joined the translation project at LMP. In 1853, Edkins and Zhang translated Guang lun (On Optics), the earliest systematic study on optics in China.
40 C H I N A A N D A L B E RT E I N S T E I N The First National Education System In 1904, the Chinese imperial government promulgated the ﬁrst modern educational system, Gui mao xue zhi (1904 School System), which was implemented nationwide, remained effective until 1911, and therefore laid a foundation for China’s modern education, including the teaching of physics. 183 According to the new regulations, physics was one of eleven required courses in the middle-school curriculum. 184 Since it required that each of the 185 prefectures have at least one middle school, this system, if fully implemented, would provide a great number of students access to physics education.
China and Albert Einstein: The Reception of the Physicist and His Theory in China, 1917-1979 by Danian Hu