By Jean-Denis G. G. Lepage
Это исследование – хроника развития британских укрепсооружений с доисторических времен до конца правления Ричарда III в 1485 году. К каждому периоду истории подобраны соответствующие примеры, а также информацию об оружии и осадных устройствах. Более 250 иллюстраций подробно и образно расскажут о каждом строении.
From the time the Romans first set foot on Englands shore in fifty five BC, the British Isles have confronted a continuing risk of overseas invasion. consequently, the landscapes of britain, Scotland, and eire are dotted with old shielding fortifications as various as their makers. Iron Age Celtic «hillforts,» Roman castra and Hadrians Wall, Anglo-Saxon dykes and Alfredian burhs, Norman mottes and stone-keeps, Edwardian castles, Irish tower homes all of them served to repel historic intruders and plenty of nonetheless stand as tangible relics of a notable earlier. This learn chronicles the improvement of British fortifications from prehistoric instances throughout the finish of Richard IIIs reign in 1485, supplying the background of every form of constitution, proper examples, and knowledge on guns and siege conflict. greater than 250 illustrations vividly element each one edifaces development and configuration.
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Additional resources for British Fortifications Through the Reign of Richard III: An Illustrated History
C. D. 192 between the reigns of Augustus and Commodus). Roman civilization, largely inﬂuenced by Greek culture, spread throughout the empire, and the language of Rome — Latin — and the legal system established by the Romans remain important parts of Western culture. The Romans also introduced Christianity, after emperor Constantine converted to Christianity in 312, and made it the ofﬁcial religion in the empire. D. 395 an administrative division of the empire into eastern and western parts was made permanent.
The Iron Age and Roman times. Literary evidence indicates that crannogs were still being used in remote areas of Scotland until the seventeenth century. This extensive time range makes it hard to know when a particular crannog was in use. Crannogs offer an unparalleled opportunity to recover information about Scotland’s past. Because Scotland’s lochs are so cold and relatively bacteria-free, organic materials such as wood, seeds and plant ﬁber are often well preserved. Such preservation helps archaeologists piece together what life on a crannog was actually like, in a way that cannot be achieved on dryland sites.
Over the centuries of occupation debris gradually raised the ground surface and the structure ceased to be an impressive tower, becoming more of a settlement mound. However, the site evidently remained prestigious. 1. Prehistoric Fortiﬁcations (continued from page 46) not uncommon in the later Middle Ages, however, for the broch shells to once more become the residences of local chieftains. Brochs are only one type in an impressive range of related buildings. Another version of the same theme is the wheelhouse, unique so far to the Outer Hebrides and Shetland.
British Fortifications Through the Reign of Richard III: An Illustrated History by Jean-Denis G. G. Lepage