By World Health Organization
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Additional info for AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2004
Because many men are willing to pay more for sex without a condom, many women ﬁnd it especially difﬁcult to negotiate condom use. In India, one quarter of street-based sex workers said that if a client refused to use a condom they simply charged more money and went ahead with sex. Sex workers in China’s Yunnan province have reported that they earn about 60% more for sex without a condom, while non-brothel-based sex workers in Indonesia charged around 20% more. In addition, some clients threaten or use violence when sex workers try to insist on condom use.
In Ho Chi Minh City, 38% of almost 1000 sex workers included in one survey injected drugs— and fully 49% of those injecting sex workers were infected with HIV (compared with 8% of those who didn’t use any drugs). In the northern port city of Haiphong, nearly 40% of all sex workers said they injected drugs, compared to one in six sex workers who did likewise in the capital, Hanoi. Drug-using sex workers are about half as likely to use condoms as those who do not use drugs, according to another study in Ho Chi Minh City.
The high rates of commercial sex between men reported in surveys do not represent the habits of all men who have sex with men, but they highlight the forgotten population of male sex workers and the high risks of HIV infection they have. In one Bangkok study, for example, 32% of men who have sex with men who reported selling sex were infected with HIV. 41 UNAIDS/WHO those who had remained in their home cities. 2% of those who had never been to India. Viet Nam’s cities, where the virus now appears to be spreading freely among groups that are at high risk of exposure to HIV.
AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2004 by World Health Organization