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By Philoponus ; Christian Wildberg (translator)

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10. Maddoli 1982: 247–250 finds it crucial and bases a theory of Greek-Carthaginian relations on it. Luraghi 1994: 277–281 dismisses it; cf. Bravo 1993: 55, 453. 11. Gauthier 1966: 22. The bias has been argued to be Spartan (Gauthier 1966: 17–21) and/or Athenian (Treves 1941; Gauthier 1966: 21–22; Zahrnt 1993: 374). 12. Zahrnt 1993: 373–375. 7. 13 This is perfectly consistent with skirmishing in western Sicily, probably while he was still based at Gela, and perhaps even on the pretext of avenging Dorieus and extending an economic sphere of influence.

So for Nagy, Pindaric discourse (the ainos) fundamentally warns against the threat of tyranny but can adapt itself to positive treatment of tyranny when necessary. Kurke’s similar approach sees epinician rhetoric as attempting to construct a communitarian consensus and pushed to the extreme in the case of tyrants. Cole’s concern with the victory revel means that he views epinician as a way of channeling the enthusiasm of the kōmos; loss of control and uncontrollable subtexts are ongoing issues.

These sinners, like a mortal tyrant, enjoy exceptional favor from the gods, but they must not take it for granted and let it cause them to make the category error of thinking that they are equal to the gods. There is, indeed, an analogical relationship between Zeus and Hieron and Hieron and his subjects, and when society is functioning as it should the hierarchy is a source of countless blessings. Yet there is also an ontological difference between the levels. Whereas a rebellious subject might, if fortunate, succeed in deposing the tyrant and seizing power for himself, this is not the case for Hieron and Zeus (for Hieron, heroization is a maximal possibility; see below).

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Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle) by Philoponus ; Christian Wildberg (translator)

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