By Robert Service
Russia had a unprecedented 20th century, present process upheaval and transformation. Updating his acclaimed History of recent Russia, Robert carrier offers a wide ranging standpoint on a rustic whose Soviet prior encompassed revolution, civil battle, mass terror, and global wars. He indicates how seven many years of communist rule, which penetrated each element of Soviet lifestyles, proceed to steer Russia this day. This new version takes the tale from 2002 during the complete presidency of Vladimir Putin to the election of his successor, Dmitri Medvedev.
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Extra resources for A History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-First Century, Third Edition
Wages for workers in the Petrograd armaments plants probably rose slightly faster than inﬂation in 1914–15; but 31 a hi s t o r y o f m o d e r n r u s s i a thereafter they failed to keep pace – and the pay-rates in the capital were the highest in the country. 17 Wages in any case do not tell the whole story. Throughout the empire there was a deﬁcit in consumer products. Bread had to be queued for, and its availability was unreliable. Housing and sanitation fell into disrepair. All urban amenities declined in quality as the population of the towns swelled with rural migrants searching for factory work and with refugees ﬂeeing the German occupation.
Russians were moving to towns; they were becoming literate; they could travel from one part of the country to another; they had chances of changing their type of occupation. As they met and talked and worked together, they started to feel that they had much in common with each other. Yet national consciousness was not a dominant sentiment among Russians. Except at times of war, most of them at the beginning of the twentieth century were motivated by Christian belief, peasant customs, village loyalties and reverence for the tsar rather than by feelings of Russian nationhood.
With the increase in the urban population there was a rise in the number of shopkeepers, clerks and providers of other products and services. The cities of the Russian Empire teemed with a new life that was bursting through the surface of the age-old customs. The monarchy tried to hold on to its prerogatives by ensuring that the middle and upper classes should lack organizations independent from the government. There were a few exceptions. The Imperial Economic Society debated the great issues of industrialization.
A History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-First Century, Third Edition by Robert Service